[495] The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008.[496]. [328] Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available. ", "Europarat sieht Türkei auf dem Weg in die Autokratie", "EU: Bericht: Europarat sieht Türkei auf dem Weg in die Autokratie", "Türkei: Europarat warnt vor drohender Autokratie", "The Latest: Turkey releases official referendum results", "Turkey referendum: Erdogan declares victory", "Turkish constitutional referendum: TRexit from parliamentary democracy? 115-116. [335] According to Twitter's transparency report, Turkey is the global leader in social media censorship. [87] The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities. [313] In 2009, after only four years in circulation, the Turkish new lira was renamed back to the Turkish lira with the introduction of new banknotes and coins. [444] Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are ten years old. [223][224] A full-scale insurgency began in 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. [155][156][157][158] The Turkey 2015 report of the European Commission stated that "the independence of the judiciary and respect of the principle of separation of powers have been undermined and judges and prosecutors have been under strong political pressure. The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power. Other ethnic groups include Albanians, Arabs, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Georgians, Laz, Pomaks, and Roma. With an estimated nominal gross domestic product of $744 billion ($8,958 per capita) and $2.4 trillion ($28,264 p.c.) [325] İstanbul Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. [252], Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country. A presidential system was adopted by referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018 and gives the President complete control of the executive, including the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and make appointments to the bureaucracy and the courts. [376] As part of Turkey's migrant crisis, according to UNHCR, in 2018 Turkey was hosting 63.4% of all the refugees in the world, that is 3,564,919 registered refugees from Africa and the Middle East in total. Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violence and the coup in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 staged by the EOKA B paramilitary organisation, which overthrew President Makarios and installed the pro-Enosis (union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974 by unilaterally exercising Article IV in the Treaty of Guarantee (1960), but without restoring the status quo ante at the end of the military operation. As of 2014[update], the country has a roadway network of 65,623 kilometres (40,776 miles). [491], Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. - Le Milli Görüs (« Vision nationale », fondé en 1969 par Necmettin Erbakan)  : c’est la branche européenne du parti islamiste turc, bien implanté dans la diaspora turque en Allemagne (sous le nom d’Union turque d’Europe) et mal vue des autorités d’Ankara. [273], The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. "[409] Now greatly increased in size, the Diyanet promotes a certain type of conservative (Hanafi Sunni) Islam inside Turkey, issuing fetva that disapprove of activities such as "feeding dogs at home, celebrating the western New Year, lotteries, and tattoos"[410] Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. [221] The Kurdistan Workers' Party (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States,[101] the European Union[102] and NATO[103]) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent, Marxist-Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan. [94] In the following year, the single-party period in Turkey came to an end, with the first multiparty elections in 1946. The latest of those big earthquakes was the 1999 İzmit earthquake. [53], The House of Seljuk originated from the Kınık branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [455] Turkey has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world, with nearly one third (29.5%) of its adult population obese. In 1950 Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe. Islam institutionnel, islam parallèle De l'Empire ottoman à la Turquie contemporaine (XVIe-XXe siècles). [426] The 1942-44 wealth tax for non-Muslims, the emigration of a portion of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the ongoing Cyprus dispute, which damaged relations between Turkish Muslims and Christians (culminating in the Istanbul pogrom of 6–7 September 1955), were other important events that contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population. Charles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War". Turkish directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear. Ce qui ne signifie pas du tout qu’elle soit négligeable ou n’ait pas de poids politique. Au cours du dernier demi-siècle, l’islam (dans sa version sunnite) a été peu à peu réintroduit par le biais de l’État. [420][421] Two of the five major episcopal sees of the Pentarchy (Constantinople and Antioch) instituted by Justinian the Great in 531 AD[422] were located in present-day Turkey during the Byzantine period.[423]. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. [395] For many decades, the wearing of the Hijab was banned in schools and government buildings because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam. [11], The three "Non-Muslim" minority groups recognised in the Treaty of Lausanne were Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The English name of Turkey (from Medieval Latin Turchia/Turquia[28]) means "land of the Turks". On estime qu'environ 80-85 % des musulmans sont sunnites, et 15-20 %3 sont chiites. [130] Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the first president elected by direct voting. When three powers (executive, legislative and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. [113] As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out mass purges. [96][97] Between 1960 and the end of the 20th century, the prominent leaders in Turkish politics who achieved multiple election victories were Süleyman Demirel, Bülent Ecevit and Turgut Özal. [136] The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services. ", "Turkey: International Religious Freedom Report 2007", "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey : Alevis", "Erdogan, Iran, Syrian Alawites, and Turkish Alevis", "Turkey's Alevi minority fear future under Erdogan presidency", "Sectarian Tension Builds in Turkey as Erdogan Crackdown Widens", Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, "The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey", "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050", "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte", "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom", "An Overview of the History of the Jews in Turkey", "Beyond the Straight Path: Obstacles and Progress for Atheism in Turkey", "The first Atheist Association in Turkey is founded", "Why so many Turks are losing faith in Islam", "Atheism grows in Turkey as Recep Tayyip Erdogan urges Islam | DW | 09.01.2019", "The number of atheists increasing in Turkey", "Turkey's Education Reform Bill Is About Playing Politics With Pedagogy", "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012", "Improving The Quality And Equity of Basic Education in Turkey Challenges And Options", "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)", "Guide for Foreign Students planning Education in Turkey", "Turkish universities latest domino in Erdogan's path", "Turkey drops evolution and starts teaching jihad instead", "UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists", "Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600–1600", "A list of the buildings designed by Mimar Sinan", "The Search for Identity: 1st National Architecture Movement", "Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period", "XIX. Les Alévis : Les alévis. [247] In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions."[248]. [171][172] The Truman Doctrine in 1947 enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece during the Cold War, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support. [357] Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity. [300] In 2020 the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development offered to support a just transition away from coal.[301]. [190] However, following the rapprochement with Russia in 2016, Turkey revised its stance regarding the solution of the conflict in Syria. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether. Manuel du capitaliste en Turquie: aperçu des fonds et obligations d'état, exposé succinct des banques, établissemens de crédit, sociétés industrielles et des compagnies de chemins de fer de l'Empire Ottoman, à l'usage du rentier, banquier, négociant, etc - Ebook written by O. Iskender. Les sondages indépendants récents montrent des pourcentages plus faibles, avec 9,4 %9 à 13 %8 n'étant pas du tout religieux. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization. Fenerbahçe won the 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship and the 2012 CEV Women's Champions League. [274] The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. [179][180] Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the AKP government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbour Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. According to Eurostat data, Turkish GDP per capita adjusted by purchasing power standards stood at 61 percent of the EU average in 2019. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country's territory. Tourism in Turkey has increased almost every year in the 21st century,[314] and is an important part of the economy. Die Schweiz kandidiert für einen nichtständigen Sitz im UNO-Sicherheitsrat in den Jahren 2023-2024. Or, le terme turc même de laïcité (laiklik) est pos-térieur à ces réformes. [277][278] The country is among the founding members of the OECD and the G20. Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (il or vilayet) for administrative purposes. Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. The Dutch government called spying activities an "unwanted and non-acceptable … [457][458] Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. [183] Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalised following a deal in June 2016. [470], With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded. [255] The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (990 miles) long and 800 kilometres (500 miles) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape. En 1924, après avoir instauré la république, Mustapha Kemal a aboli le Califat (l’autorité suprême de l’islam, que les grecs détenaient depuis la prise de La Mecque par les armée ottomane en 1517. [109] Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. The territory of Turkey later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC,[46] which led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization in the area.[13]. Le Premier ministre, Turgut Özal fut l’un de ses membres les plus illustres. Hors du champs religieux : La Franc-maçonerie It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbours Greece and Bulgaria. Le seul vrai laïcisme possible en Turquie ne consiste pas à séparer la religion de l'Etat en la laissant s'organiser et fonctionner de façon autonome, mais à la placer sous le contrôle le plus rigoureux de l'Etat à travers un département, appelé ensuite ministère, des Affaires religieuses (Diyanet). ", "Turkey's Middle East Policies: Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism", "Syria ratchets up tension with Turkey – warning it of dangers of rebel support", "Turkey, Egypt recall envoys in wake of violence", "Israel and Turkey end rift over Gaza flotilla killings", "Greece, Egypt, Cyprus urge Turkey to quit gas search off island", "Egypt, Greece, Cyprus pledge to boost energy cooperation", "Policy of Zero Problems with our Neighbors", "How Turkey Went From 'Zero Problems' to Zero Friends", "Erdogan's 'New Turkey' drifts towards isolation", "Syria conflict: Turkey and Russia 'agree ceasefire plan, "Turkey and Russia agree on draft Syria ceasefire, report says", "How Russia and Turkey brokered peace in Syria – and sidelined the US", Kurdish fighters join Turkey's Afrin operation, Recep Tayyip Erdogan vows to 'drown' Syrian Kurdish force set up by US, Turkey to U.S.: End support for Syrian Kurd YPG or risk confrontation, "Will The Egyptian And Turkish Militaries Clash In Libya? Approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks. The first radical step of innovation in 20th century Turkish poetry was taken by Nâzım Hikmet, who introduced the free verse style. However, the ban was lifted from universities in 2011, from government buildings in 2013,[396] from schools in 2014[397] and from the Armed Forces in 2017. [220], In the latter half of the 1970s, Turkey suffered from political violence between far-left and far-right militant groups, which culminated in the military coup of 1980. [435] The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. par Par Timour Muhidine, Le Monde diplomatique, octobre 1994. C'est la religion très majoritaire de la Turquie, où l'on estime que 83 %2 de la population est musulmane. Un attentat-suicide contre une loge maçonnique a fait deux morts mars 2004. The diversity of Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of its flora. L’islam sunnite Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Pasha. Secrets et sociétés secrètes en islam. Prior to the symposia, the study of Turkish culinary culture was first popularised by the publication of Süheyl Ünver's Fifty Dishes in Turkish History in 1948. Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. The centralised structure of decision-making in Ankara is stated by some academics as an impediment to good local governance,[121][122] and occasionally causes resentment in the municipalities of urban centres that are inhabited largely by ethnic minority groups, such as the Kurds. La Direction des Affaires religieuses, Acteurs de l'islam entre Allemagne et Turquie, La République laïque de Turquie trois quarts de siècle après sa fondation par Atatürk, L'autre Turquie : Le mouvement aléviste et ses territoires, Grand débat en Turquie sur islamisme et laïcité. [154][needs update], In the years of government by the AKP and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey; due to political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors, and in their pursuit of public duty. [392] The CIA World Factbook reports that Islam is the religion of 99.8% of the population, with Sunni Muslims as the largest sect, while 0.2% are Christians and Jews. [204], Turkey has the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces, with an estimated strength of 495,000 deployable forces, according to a 2011 NATO estimate. [211][212] Turkish Armed Forces have overseas military bases in Albania,[213] Iraq,[214] Qatar,[215] and Somalia. The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle, lesser spotted eagle, Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper. [98] In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey, was established. For the bird, see, "Türkiye" redirects here. [513] The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media. [477] The Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus also reflect the fusion between classical Ottoman and European architectural styles during the aforementioned period. [497][498] Beşiktaş won the 2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge,[499] and Galatasaray won the 2015–16 Eurocup. [76][77][78][79] The Turkish government has refused to acknowledge the events as genocide and states that Armenians were only relocated from the eastern war zone. More than 40,000 people have died as a result of the conflict. [269][271] In the 21st century threats to biodiversity include desertification due to climate change in Turkey. [253][254] Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country, is separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. [502] Women's volleyball clubs, namely Fenerbahçe, Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank, have won numerous European championship titles and medals. [339] Turkey has the fifth-highest direct utilisation and capacity of geothermal power in the world. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014. in, "The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus: A Wonder of the Ancient World", "The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: The Un-Greek Temple and Wonder", "Anatolia and the Caucasus (Asia Minor), 1000 B.C. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet. [438][439][440][441], The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. L’islam est la religion dominante : plus de 99 % des habitants de la Turquie sont issus d’une famille musulmane. [19] In an effort to consolidate the weakening empire, Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century. Yüzyıl Başı Eminönü'nde Osmanlı Büro Hanları", "Ankara – State Museum of Painting and Sculpture", "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization", "Food in Turkey – Turkish Food, Turkish Cuisine", "Historic achievements of the Efes Pilsen Basketball Team", "Galatasaray Lift EuroLeague Women Title", "Turkish volleyball teams' successes in Europe", "Vakıfbank women claim volleyball Champions League trophy", "Historical Kırkpınar oil wrestling festival kicks off in northwestern Turkey", "Kırkpınar Oiled Wrestling Tournament: History", "The Political Economy of the Media in Turkey: A Sectoral Analysis", "Gazete Tirajları 02.05.2016 – 08.05.2016", "Turkey world"s second highest TV series exporter after US – Business", "CPJ testifies on Turkey's press freedom record after failed coup attempt", "Turkey Purges 4,000 More Officials, and Blocks Wikipedia", "Turkey blocks Wikipedia under law designed to protect national security", Turkey Home – Turkey's Official Tourism Portal, Official website of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Official website of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey, Official website of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Official website of Ministry of the Ministry of Economy, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), International Organization of Turkic Culture, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Turkey&oldid=994463847, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1923, Turkish-speaking countries and territories, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from November 2020, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from November 2020, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:10. İsmet İnönü became Turkey's second President following Atatürk's death on 10 November 1938. [136] Turkey under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and the AKP has been described as becoming increasingly authoritarian. They built ancient places of worship such as the Sardis Synagogue in Lydia and the Priene Synagogue in Ionia. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. [173] The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. Several ecumenical councils of the early Church were held in cities located in present-day Turkey including the First Council of Nicaea (Iznik) in 325, the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451. The HUDOC database provides access to the case-law of the Court (Grand Chamber, Chamber and Committee judgments and decisions, communicated cases, advisory opinions and legal summaries from the Case-Law Information Note), the European Commission of Human Rights (decisions and reports) and the Committee of Ministers (resolutions) [256] Turkey is the world's 37th-largest country in terms of area. Turkey supported the coalition forces in the First Gulf War. [306] Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate. [521][522], Country in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, This article is about the country. [492] The country's position between Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish. Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. [175], The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia,[177] thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion d’État, contrairement aux pays musulmans. [104][105][106] In 1999 PKK's founder Abdullah Öcalan was arrested and sentenced for terrorism[101][102] and treason charges. [clarification needed] For instance, the Turkish Civil Code has been modified by incorporating elements mainly of the Swiss Civil Code and Code of Obligations, and the German Commercial Code. [469] Franc-Maçonnerie, Carboneria et confréries soufies L’organisation des rapports entre État et religions en Turquie 121 174) 6.

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